WHEN WOULD YOUR PATIENTS WANT A FULL THERAPEUTIC DOSE?

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV is indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy.

BRIVIACT is approved for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy dosing without titration.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

BRIVIACT is associated with important warnings and precautions including suicidal behavior and ideation, somnolence, fatigue, dizziness, disturbance in gait and coordination, psychiatric adverse reactions including non-psychotic and psychotic symptoms, and hypersensitivity reactions (bronchospasm and angioedema). BRIVIACT is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients.

The most common adverse reactions (at least 5% for BRIVIACT and at least 2% more frequently than placebo) are somnolence and sedation, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting symptoms.

BRIVIACT is a Schedule V controlled substance.

Click here to view additional Important Safety Information

Choose BRIVIACT® for your partial-onset seizure patients

  • BRIVIACT offers a therapeutic dose on DAY ONE1
    • Gradual dose escalation is not required

    Learn more about dosing

  • BRIVIACT is a new molecular entity that targets SV2A1
    • Based on in vitro studies, BRIVIACT displays a 15- to 30-fold higher affinity for SV2A2; implications for clinical efficacy and tolerability are not known
    • The precise mechanism by which BRIVIACT exerts its anticonvulsant activity is unknown1

    Learn more about the mechanism of action

  • The efficacy of BRIVIACT was established in 3 fixed-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies, which included 1550 patients1
    • In Study 3, approximately 54% of patients had prior exposure to levetiracetam and were evaluated in a pre-specified analysis1,3
    • In the pre-specified analysis of patients with prior levetiracetam exposure, efficacy over placebo was observed among patients taking BRIVIACT3

    Learn more about efficacy data

  • Safety and tolerability of BRIVIACT were established without utilizing a titration period1
    • Most common adverse reactions are somnolence and sedation, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting symptoms

    Learn more about the safety and tolerability profile

“It’s extremely important to me that seizures don't run my life.”
—Joel, 36, BRIVIACT® patient

About BRIVIACT

BRIVIACT® is a new molecular entity in the racetam class that targets SV2A

See more

IN A PRECLINICAL DISCOVERY PROGRAM, THE AFFINITY OF RACETAM ANALOGS FOR SYNAPTIC VESICLE PROTEIN 2A (SV2A) STRONGLY CORRELATED TO THEIR ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY IN AN ANIMAL MODEL4-6

The most promising compounds were profiled in a broad range of animal models of seizures and epilepsy4,5

Agents with an animal model profile similar to levetiracetam* were not pursued through Phase III clinical trials5

BRIVIACT displayed anticonvulsant activity in numerous animal models of seizures and epilepsy including classical screening models4,5

BRIVIACT displays a high and selective affinity for SV2A in the brain, which may contribute to the anticonvulsant effect1

The precise mechanism by which BRIVIACT exerts its anticonvulsant activity is unknown1

*Levetiracetam is a product manufactured by UCB.

SV2A binding is proposed to be the primary mechanism of action (MOA) for BRIVIACT® and levetiracetam*†5-11

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Mechanism of Action Graphic

  • Based on in vitro studies:
    • BRIVIACT displays a 15- to 30-fold higher affinity for SV2A2
    • BRIVIACT does not display activity at HVA Ca2+ channels or AMPA receptors5
  • Implications for clinical efficacy and tolerability are not known
  • *The precise mechanism by which levetiracetam exerts its anticonvulsant activity is unknown.
  • Not all proposed mechanisms of levetiracetam are depicted.
  • High-voltage-activated calcium channel.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Suicidal Behavior and Ideation: Antiepileptic drugs, including BRIVIACT, increase the risk of suicidal behavior and ideation. Monitor patients taking BRIVIACT for the emergence or worsening of depression; unusual changes in mood or behavior; or suicidal thoughts, behavior, or self-harm. Advise patients, their caregivers, and/or families to be alert for these behavioral changes and report them immediately to a healthcare provider.

Neurological Adverse Reactions: BRIVIACT causes somnolence, fatigue, dizziness, and disturbance in coordination. Somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions were reported in 25% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 14% of patients taking placebo. Dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination were reported in 16% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 10% of patients taking placebo. The risk is greatest early in treatment but can occur at any time. Monitor patients for these signs and symptoms and advise them not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on BRIVIACT.

Efficacy

Efficacy was established in trials that did not utilize a titration period

See more

PERCENT REDUCTION OVER PLACEBO IN PARTIAL-ONSET SEIZURE FREQUENCY ADJUSTED TO 28 DAYS DURING THE TREATMENT PERIOD1

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Percent Reduction Over Placebo in Study 3 Chart

Statistically significant based on testing procedure with alpha = 0.05.

  • Effectiveness was established in 3 fixed-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter
    studies, which included 1550 patients
  • Enrolled patients had partial-onset seizures that were not adequately controlled by 1 to 2 concomitant antiepileptic
    drugs (AEDs)

BRIVIACT® was studied in a challenging patient population

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Baseline Characteristics of Patients in Study 3 Table
BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Baseline Characteristics of Patients in Study 3 Table

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Psychiatric Adverse Reactions: BRIVIACT causes psychiatric adverse reactions, including non-psychotic and psychotic symptoms. These events were reported in approximately 13% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 8% of patients taking placebo. A total of 1.7% of adult patients taking BRIVIACT discontinued treatment due to psychiatric reactions compared to 1.3% of patients taking placebo. Advise patients to report these symptoms immediately to a healthcare provider.

Efficacy was observed among patients taking BRIVIACT® who had previously discontinued levetiracetam

See more

PERCENT REDUCTION OVER PLACEBO IN PARTIAL-ONSET SEIZURE FREQUENCY ADJUSTED TO 28 DAYS DURING THE TREATMENT PERIOD3

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Patients with Prior Levetiracetam Exposure Chart
BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Patients with Prior Levetiracetam Exposure Chart

Statistically significant based on testing procedure with alpha = 0.05.

Patients had to discontinue levetiracetam use more than 90 days prior to screening.

  • In Study 3, approximately 54% of patients had prior exposure to levetiracetam and were evaluated in a pre-specified analysis†1,3
    • Of prior levetiracetam patients, approximately 68% had failed levetiracetam due to efficacy, 14% had discontinued for an adverse drug reaction, and 20% had discontinued for other reasons3
  • Patients taking concomitant levetiracetam were excluded from the study1

Patients with prior levetiracetam exposure presented with more severe baseline characteristics

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Baseline Characteristics of Patients with Prior Levetiracetam Exposure Table
BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Baseline Characteristics of Patients with Prior Levetiracetam Exposure Table

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Hypersensitivity: BRIVIACT can cause hypersensitivity reactions. Bronchospasm and angioedema have been reported. Discontinue BRIVIACT if a patient develops a hypersensitivity reaction after treatment. BRIVIACT is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients.

Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs: As with all antiepileptic drugs, BRIVIACT should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus.

Download complimentary pivotal trial publications

Study 1

Brivaracetam as adjunctive treatment for uncontrolled partial epilepsy in adults:

A phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Victor Biton et al. Epilepsia, 55(1):57–66, 2014

Study 2

Adjunctive brivaracetam in adults with uncontrolled focal epilepsy:

Results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Phillippe Ryvlin et al. Epilepsia, 55(1):47–56, 2014

Study 3

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive brivaracetam in adult patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures - Pavel Klein et al. Epilepsia56(12):1890–1898, 2015

Safety

BRIVIACT® Warnings and Precautions

Antiepileptic drugs, including BRIVIACT, increase the risk of suicidal behavior and ideation

  • Monitor patients for the emergence or worsening of depression; unusual changes in mood or behavior; or suicidal thoughts, behavior, or self-harm
  • Advise patients, their caregivers, and/or families to be alert for these changes and report them immediately to a healthcare provider

Causes somnolence, fatigue, dizziness, and disturbance in gait and coordination

  • Somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions reported in 25% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 14% of patients taking placebo
  • Dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination reported in 16% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 10% of patients taking placebo
  • Risk is greatest early in treatment but can occur at any time
  • Monitor patients and advise them not to drive or operate machinery until they have sufficient experience on BRIVIACT

Causes psychiatric adverse reactions, including non-psychotic and psychotic symptoms

  • Events reported in approximately 13% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 8% of patients taking placebo
  • 1.7% of adult patients taking BRIVIACT discontinued treatment due to psychiatric reactions compared to 1.3% of patients taking placebo
  • Advise patients to report these symptoms immediately to a healthcare provider

Can cause hypersensitivity reactions; bronchospasm and angioedema have been reported

  • Discontinue BRIVIACT if a patient develops a hypersensitivity reaction after treatment
  • Contraindicated in patients with prior hypersensitivity to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients in BRIVIACT

Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs

  • As with all antiepileptic drugs, BRIVIACT should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus

Safety and tolerability of BRIVIACT® were evaluated without utilizing a titration period

The most common adverse reactions (at least 5% for BRIVIACT and at least 2% more frequently than placebo) are1:

  • somnolence and sedation
  • dizziness
  • fatigue
  • nausea and vomiting symptoms

ADVERSE REACTIONS THAT OCCURRED AT LEAST 2% MORE FREQUENTLY FOR BRIVIACT DOSES OF AT LEAST 50 MG/DAY THAN PLACEBO IN POOLED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY STUDIES1

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Adverse Reactions Table
BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Adverse Reactions Table
  • *Cerebellar coordination and balance disturbances include ataxia, balance disorder, coordination abnormal, and nystagmus.

There was no apparent dose-dependent increase in adverse reactions with the exception of somnolence and sedation1

Most adverse events in trials were reported to be mild to moderate3

Across all 3 trials, discontinuation rates due to adverse events were1:

  • Placebo: 4%
  • BRIVIACT 50 mg/day: 5%
  • BRIVIACT 100 mg/day: 8%
  • BRIVIACT 200 mg/day: 7%

The most common adverse reaction leading to discontinuation was dizziness.3

Drug Interactions

See more
  • General drug interactions1

    • Rifampin: Co-administration with rifampin decreases BRIVIACT® plasma concentrations likely because of CYP2C19 induction. Increase the BRIVIACT dosage in patients on concomitant rifampin by up to 100% (i.e., double the dosage)
    • Oral contraceptives:
      • BRIVIACT was studied with an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.15 mg)
      • BRIVIACT 50 mg twice daily (100 mg/day) did not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of either substance of the oral contraceptive
      • BRIVIACT 200 mg twice daily (400 mg/day, twice the recommended maximum daily dosage) reduced estrogen and progestin AUCs by 27% and 23%, respectively, but did not affect suppression of ovulation
      • The interaction is not expected to be of clinical significance

    BRIVIACT and other AEDs1

    None of the interactions listed below requires changes in the dose of BRIVIACT, but interactions with carbamazepine and phenytoin can be clinically important

    • Carbamazepine: Co-administration may increase exposure to carbamazepine-epoxide (the active metabolite of carbamazepine). Available data did not reveal any safety concerns, but dose reduction should be considered if tolerability issues arise
    • Phenytoin: BRIVIACT can increase plasma concentrations of phenytoin, so levels should be monitored during co-administration
      • At a supratherapeutic dose of 400 mg/day brivaracetam, there was a 20% increase in phenytoin plasma concentration
    • Levetiracetam: BRIVIACT provided no added therapeutic benefit to levetiracetam when the two drugs were co-administered

Dosing

BRIVIACT® offers a therapeutic dose on DAY ONE

The recommended starting dose for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy is 50 mg twice daily (100 mg/day) and is initiated without titration1

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Dosing Graphic

Gradual dose escalation is not required with BRIVIACT

  • Based on individual patient response, the dose may be adjusted between 25 mg twice daily (50 mg/day) and 100 mg twice daily (200 mg/day)
  • Avoid abrupt withdrawal from BRIVIACT in order to minimize the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus

Dosing in specific populations

  • For all stages of hepatic impairment, the recommended starting dosage is 25 mg twice daily (50 mg/day) and the recommended maximum dosage is 75 mg twice daily (150 mg/day)
  • Dose adjustments are not required for patients with impaired renal function; there are no data in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis, and use of BRIVIACT is not recommended in this patient population

BRIVIACT® is available in multiple formulations, allowing for dosing flexibility

Considerations for tablets and oral solution1

  • BRIVIACT can be given with or without food
  • Tablets should be swallowed whole with liquid; they should not be chewed or crushed; tablets are not scored

Considerations for intravenous (IV) use*1

BRIVIACT injection may be used when oral administration is temporarily not feasible.

Preparation

  • BRIVIACT injection can be administered intravenously without further dilution or may be mixed with diluents listed below:
    • 0.9% sodium chloride injection, USP
    • Lactated Ringer's injection
    • 5% dextrose injection, USP

Administration

  • BRIVIACT injection should be administered intravenously over 2 to 15 minutes

Adverse reactions with BRIVIACT injection are generally similar to those observed with BRIVIACT tablets and also include dysgeusia, euphoric mood, feeling drunk, and infusion site pain.

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Multiple Formulations

10-mg tablets are available for down titration.


Blood levels1

  • No blood-level monitoring required

Pharmacokinetic profile1

  • Approximately 100% oral bioavailability
  • Linear pharmacokinetics
  • The half-life (t1/2) is approximately 9 hours, steady-state reached after 2 days
  • BRIVIACT is weakly bound (≤20%) to plasma proteins
  • No pharmacologically active metabolites
  • *Clinical study experience limited to 4 consecutive days of treatment.

Co-pay/Savings

Affordability and accessibility matter

UCB is committed to making BRIVIACT accessible for the majority of eligible patients across the US

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV Patients May Pay as Little as $20 per Month with the Patient Savings Card

9 out of 10 commercial patients have formulary access to BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV and most have unrestricted access.3

Savings

BRIVIACT® Patient Savings Program

Eligible patients* pay as little as $20 per 30-day supply of BRIVIACT with the BRIVIACT Patient Savings Program

Ask your sales representative for details about the program.

  • *Patients are responsible for a minimum of $20 out-of-pocket expense per 30-day supply. This card will then be applied toward any remaining out-of-pocket expense up to a maximum of $100. Most patients who have commercial prescription insurance are eligible. If you have any questions regarding your eligibility or benefits or if you wish to discontinue your participation, call the BRIVIACT Savings Program at 1-888-786-5879 (8:30 AM – 5:30 PM EST, Monday-Friday and 8:30 AM – 2:30 PM EST, Saturday). This savings card is not valid for use by patients who are covered by any federal or state funded healthcare program (including, but not limited to, Medicare [Part D and Medigap], Medicaid, any state pharmaceutical assistance program TRICARE, VA, or DoD). Offer good only in the U.S., including Puerto Rico. This card is good for use only with a valid BRIVIACT prescription at the time the prescription is filled by the pharmacist and dispensed to the patient. The maximum annual benefit amount is $1300 per calendar year. Void where prohibited by law, taxed, or restricted. This offer cannot be combined with any other promotional offer. UCB, Inc. reserves the right to rescind, revoke, or amend this offer without notice at any time. No cash value. Not eligible for sale, purchase, trade, or counterfeit.

Assistance

When a prior authorization is required, PARx Solutions® and CoverMyMeds® can provide assistance

PARx Solutions and CoverMyMeds offer prior authorization (PA) assistance through an electronic-based system that standardizes the medical necessity request process for most insurance providers, and for patients with commercial, Medicare Part D, and Medicaid coverage*

When a prior authorization is needed, PARx Solutions and CoverMyMeds can provide assistance.

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV PARx Solutions Logo and Percent of Prior Authorizations Approved

PARx Support Solutions for Prescribers (PASS)

  • PARx Solutions helps prescribers easily navigate the PA process by providing digital PAs via secure web-based and pharmacy-driven support

Get started in 4 simple steps:

  1. Physician completes and submits universal insurance PA request form.
  2. PARx completes proper PA health plan form.
  3. PARx submits form to proper health plan.
  4. PARx works with office if additional information is needed and follows up on outcome of submission.

For more information, visit www.parxsolutions.com.

BRIVIACT® (brivaracetam) CV CoverMyMeds Logo and Percent of Prior Authorizations Approved

Pharmacy-initiated PA requests

  • If a prescription is submitted to a participating pharmacy and requires a PA, CoverMyMeds facilitates the approval process by delivering a PA to your office for completion, signature, and submission to the health plan
  • More than 90%14 of retail pharmacies participate in CoverMyMeds

Physician-initiated PAs

  • CoverMyMeds also offers a web-based portal that can help your office by automating the PA process, saving prescribers and staff time and ensuring patients receive their medication faster

Get started online at www.covermymeds.com, by email at help@covermymeds.com, or by phone at 1-866-452-5017.

  • *Currently, Medi-Cal, Washington State Medicaid, and Wisconsin State Medicaid require the pharmacy to submit prior authorization forms and may not be applicable to this program. This list is subject to change based on plan requirements.
  • Year-to-date average does not indicate or guarantee an individual’s approval for BRIVIACT.

Financial assistance may be available for BRIVIACT® patients

The BRIVIACT Patient Assistance Program may be able to help if your patients do not have health insurance or if they are a Medicare Part D recipient and cannot afford BRIVIACT. Eligible patients are provided a free 6-month supply of medicine and can reapply every six months for continuing support.

To learn more about the BRIVIACT Patient Assistance Program or to find out if your patient might be eligible for assistance, please contact UCBCares at 1-844-599-CARE (2273) or UCBCares@ucb.com, or click below to get started.

Program instructions and application form

Receive a FREE 2-week trial of BRIVIACT®

Contact your representative to receive a patient voucher for a 14-day supply of BRIVIACT.

Or call UCBCares at 1-844-599-CARE (2273) or email UCBCares@ucb.com.

Important Safety Information

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Suicidal Behavior and Ideation: Antiepileptic drugs, including BRIVIACT®, increase the risk of suicidal behavior and ideation. Monitor patients taking BRIVIACT for the emergence or worsening of depression; unusual changes in mood or behavior; or suicidal thoughts, behavior, or self-harm. Advise patients, their caregivers, and/or families to be alert for these behavioral changes and report them immediately to a healthcare provider.
  • Neurological Adverse Reactions: BRIVIACT causes somnolence, fatigue, dizziness, and disturbance in coordination. Somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions were reported in 25% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 14% of patients taking placebo. Dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination were reported in 16% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 10% of patients taking placebo. The risk is greatest early in treatment but can occur at any time. Monitor patients for these signs and symptoms and advise them not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on BRIVIACT.
  • Psychiatric Adverse Reactions: BRIVIACT causes psychiatric adverse reactions, including non-psychotic and psychotic symptoms. These events were reported in approximately 13% of patients taking at least 50 mg per day of BRIVIACT compared to 8% of patients taking placebo. A total of 1.7% of adult patients taking BRIVIACT discontinued treatment due to psychiatric reactions compared to 1.3% of patients taking placebo. Advise patients to report these symptoms immediately to a healthcare provider.
  • Hypersensitivity: BRIVIACT can cause hypersensitivity reactions. Bronchospasm and angioedema have been reported. Discontinue BRIVIACT if a patient develops a hypersensitivity reaction after treatment. BRIVIACT is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients.
  • Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs: As with all antiepileptic drugs, BRIVIACT should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus.

DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

  • Dose adjustments are recommended for patients with all stages of hepatic impairment.
  • When BRIVIACT is co-administered with rifampin, an increase in the BRIVIACT dose is recommended.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse reactions (at least 5% for BRIVIACT and at least 2% more frequently than placebo) are somnolence and sedation, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting symptoms.

BRIVIACT is a Schedule V controlled substance.

Please see full Prescribing Information.

To report suspected adverse reactions, contact UCB, Inc. at UCBCares™ (1-844-599-2273) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

References

  1. BRIVIACT (brivaracetam): US prescribing information. Smyrna (GA): UCB, Inc., September 2017.
  2. Gillard M, Fuks B, Leclercq K, Matagne A. Binding characteristics of brivaracetam, a selective, high affinity SV2A ligand in rat, mouse and human brain: relationship to anti-convulsant properties. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;664(1-3):36–44.
  3. Data on file. UCB, Inc.
  4. Matagne A, Margineanu DG, Kenda B, Michel P, Klitgaard H. Anti-convulsive and anti-epileptic properties of brivaracetam (ucb 34714), a high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein, SV2A. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154(8):1662-1671.
  5. Klitgaard H, Matagne A, Nicolas JM, et al. Brivaracetam: Rationale for discovery and preclinical profile of selective SV2A ligand for epilepsy treatment. Epilepsia. 2016;57(4):538-548.
  6. Noyer M, Gillard M, Matagne A, Hénichart J-P, Wülfert E. The novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (ucb L059) appears to act via a specific binding site in CNS membranes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;286;137-146.
  7. Yan HD, Ishihara K, Seki T, et al. Inhibitory effects of levetiracetam on the high-voltage-activated L-type Ca2+ channels in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rat (SER). Brain Res Bull. 2013;90:142-148.
  8. Niespodziany I, Klitgaard H, Margineanu DG. Levetiracetam inhibits the high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) current in pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices. Neurosci Lett. 2001;306(1-2):5-8.
  9. Lukyanetz EA, Shkryl VM, Kostyuk PG. Selective blockade of N-type calcium channels by levetiracetam. Epilepsia. 2002;43(1):9-18.
  10. Carunchio I, Pieri M, Ciotti MT, Albo F, Zona C. Modulation of AMPA receptors in cultured cortical neurons induced by the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Epilepsia. 2007;48(4):654-662.
  11. Rigo JM, Nguyen L, Hans G, et al. UCB 34714: effect on inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Epilepsia. 2004;45(3):56.
  12. PARx Solutions, Inc., November 2017.
  13. CoverMyMeds, LLC, December 2017.
  14. CoverMyMeds. CoverMyMeds website: https://www.covermymeds.com/main/. Accessed October 9, 2017.